Definition of leukemia
It is a malignant disease of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow
– Leukemia, Owallukimaa, and means “leukemia” is a disease of the bone marrow
Where it begins a kind of immature blood cells to multiply rapidly and stop maturity, within the bone marrow that causes a deficiency
In the post production of natural blood cells
Which in itself is not a single disease but different types can be divided into four main sections differ in the means of treatment
There are four main types of leukemia:
1. acute leukemia lymphocytes (Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia – ALL) represents 80% of the cases,
The most common between the ages of 2-5 years, boys and infects more than girls.
2. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (Acute Myeloid Leukaemia – AML), which is responsible for most of the remaining cases.
3. chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia – CLL), which is rare in children.
4. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia – CML) and represents less than 3% of childhood leukemia.
Each type of the different types of blood cancer characteristics and way of private treatment.
Symptoms of blood cancer (leukemia):
First, the weakness in the production of red blood cells, causing anemia emergence of forces when the patient, where the infected pale extreme tiredness and a lack of appetite
Second, the weakness in the production of immature white blood cells responsible for immunity, affects the patient’s various types of infections with fever and worse in his health.
Third, the weakness in platelets, which have a key role in the production of blood clotting, causing the patient’s state of flow of blood, bleeding Faisab usually a skin
Or bruises, and some bleeding injured in the nose or internal bleeding, and as a result of the proliferation of malignant cells within the bone marrow and in some members like liver, spleen and lymph nodes, the patient feels pain in the bones, especially in children also suffer enlargement of the liver, spleen and lymph nodes.
The true cause of leukemia is unknown, but there are some
-d Factors that may increase the likelihood of injury, including:
• genetic disorders, children who suffer from a disease such as Down’s syndrome are more susceptible.
• There is no evidence that leukemia, and genetic disease, but research suggests that there is a probability of 10% to be chronic lymphatic leukemia and genetically.
• leukemia is not contagious, but research has shown that some viral infections may serve as catalysts for this disease,
Such as human T-cell leukemia virus (Human T cell leukaemia) which spreads in Japan and the Caribbean.
• Some chemicals such as benzene increases the risk of infection.
• Exposure to radiation, especially high doses it certainly increase the risk of leukemia.
• there is not yet any evidence of a link between the high incidence of leukemia in children living near electromagnetic fields,
Such as high-voltage lines and power lines and other electrical installations.
– Smoking, and has a role in the emergence of many types of cancer.
– Viruses such as RNA Retroviruses and Ebstein Barr Virus
How to diagnose leukemia
Leukemia diagnosis is usually done through the blood, which is the presence of abnormal cells, and the low number of normal blood cells may appear examination.
To confirm the diagnosis a sample of bone marrow taken.
– In the beginning, as the symptoms of blood cancer (leukemia) are similar to the symptoms of other diseases should be physical examination of the patient for the presence of swelling of the liver or spleen, or lymph nodes under the armpit or groin and neck .. This is the initial step in the diagnosis.
– The second step, depends diagnosis of leukemia or not tests of blood and bone marrow, and there are two types of tests:
A sample of bone marrow test (Bone marrow biopsy):
In this test, a small sample is taken from the bones, and these painful when the sample is taken only.
(B) withdrawal of liquid bone marrow (Bone marrow aspiration):
In this test is numbness where you will enter the needle in it of anesthesia topical, and pull through the bone or blood sample is taken from the bone marrow cells from the pubic bone by the needle, many feel the presence of pressure during the introduction of the needle and the pain for a few seconds when you drag means the bone marrow.
– The third step, is conducting further tests (in the case of having a person’s blood cancer) to see the extent of its spread in other cells:
A. (Spinal trap):
Where they are taking a sample of the fluid that fills the spaces in and around the brain and spinal cord to make sure the presence of leukemia cells.
The doctor puts a needle in a cavity of the spine in the lower part of the back (under the level of the spinal cord) to pull the liquid
(B) X-rays (X-rays), ultrasound, CT scan, ringing Amotatisy:
These types of radiation used to make pictures of organs such as the liver, spleen, lymph nodes or any building within the body.
These tests determine the extent of the arrival of leukemia for these members and what extent of it.
(C) (Excisional lymph node biopsy):
The surgeon removes the entire lymph node or nodes to detect cancer.
All of these tests determine the type of cancer and the extent of its spread in the body and thus determine the type of treatment appropriate.
Methods of Treatment:
Most leukemia patients take chemotherapy, this treatment kills cancer cells
According to the type of cancer it is taken or Aktar type of chemical drugs
And it is dealt with chemotherapy either by:
Blhakn in the veins
Blhakn directly into the liquid meningitis
In some cases of leukemia are resorting to biological treatment, which improves the body’s natural defense against cancer forces
It is administered by injection in the veins
In some cases of chronic leukemia is used monoclonal antibody and the material stuck to cancer cells and enable the immune system to kill cancer cells in blood and bone marrow.
In some other cases also from chronic leukemia it is Astkhadem interferon and who is to slow the growth of cancer cells.
Treatment with radiation
It is using high-energy rays and have the ability to penetrate the tissue to kill cancer cells
These rays are directed using certain devices to the brain, spleen and other places which are clustered by cancer cells
Some patients Astqubloa rays all over the body, especially before the process of bone marrow transplant
Bone marrow transplant
If enlarged spleen happened to the surgeon to conduct surgery to remove it
. Even today, there are no means to prevent leukemia, absolutely
But it is important to follow these dietary tips that may help to lower risk of infection in general, namely:
1-reduce the intake of fat (less than 30% of calories a day).
2. eat foods rich in fiber.
3. Eating too much fruit, citrus, vegetables, Kalmalafov, cauliflower, cereals
4. minimize the intake of smoked and prepared foods on coal.
5. quit smoking and drinks.
6. routine use of vitamin Follic Acid during pregnancy.