The development of the steam engine
an introduction :-
Since the end of the eighteenth century, the progress and development in the natural sciences accompanied by rapid progress in technology.
And it can track the correlation between the development of the natural sciences and technology in the history of the modern era Klh.
vvi the second half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century emerged and evolved steam engines and the back of the new science of physics is thermodynamics.
Because of the widespread use of machines steam in transportation this time period called the ((steam era)) At the end of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century emerged and evolved electrical machines and invented many, many inventions amazing and has emerged from the physics of electrical physics and the widespread use of electric power cause naming this time period (b (electricity eRA)) and in the second half of the twentieth century have used atomic energy for peaceful purposes and started ((corn eRA)) in the early sixties the conquest of space began and said the second half of the twentieth century ((space-age)) now, with stunning stage in the means of communication and information exchange can be considered the current era ((information age)) and therefore is clear to us the extent of the role of physics in all areas. The Glory of God who taught us what we know we did not, thank God, that we open this flag.
The steam engine
Haddad Maher German in 1630 and a German child be the direction of the world to the steam engine on their hands !!! Unbelievable but .. the truth and the whole story: the making of mourning in 1630 AD a great jug him tight lid does not fall through any mosquito or ant and more than making these pitchers.
Bought or German child this pitcher and every morning, cook tea, milk, and then the water vapor became paid pitcher lid to the top. If further from the fire fell cover, if approached from the fire rose again.
The little boy was thinking every day is going to school this steam cover, movement and grew the idea to him, and when he was a young man’s determination to experience the iron roads and copper for the manufacture of propellers spin steam, have succeeded in making the first machine steam able to pull buckets of water from the river .. senior came traders him asking him making machines steam and the young man asked them: how many horses used to pull the water? Then make the machine as much as horses Hence emitted idea (Horsepower mechanic) .. and succeed (Jules), a friend of that young man in the manufacture of steam machines again.
It is incredible that the children mourn and changing the course of human history, it is the steam engine manufactured textile machinery in 1720 AD and Steamboats 1750 and 1807 trains and generators, which manages and produces electricity 1880.
Skill really lead to the skill and creativity generates creative else .. Fmharh mourning was born making steam engines skill.
The steam engine operated machine card extends steam. Steam is used to push the pistons, which manages wheels powerful locomotives, or can be used to rotate turbines huge move generators and giant ocean liners.
And also managed large steam pumps, drilling equipment and many other types of powerful machines.
The invention of the steam engine in the eighteenth century has enabled the emergence of modern industry. Until that time, people had to rely on the strength of their muscles, animal or wind power or water power force. But the steam engine one could be doing a hundred horses.
The engine can extend all the machines in the factory are necessary capacity. Steam power and you can drag a freight train loaded with heavy cargo, long distances in a single day. Steamboats has provided a safe and quick transition.
How steam engines work
How the steam engine steam operate the machine first Order of one aspect of the piston and then on the other side works. And it directs the slider steam valve from the face to the other.
In figure (left) steam enters from the left side of the cylinder and pushes the piston to the right. As soon as the piston moves his arm runs Flywheel amount of half cycle. When the piston of the right side of the roller up (in the figure above) LED moving slider and pushes steam to apply behind the piston again.
Steam directs the piston to move to the left. And then attracts the piston arm flywheel to complete one cycle, and comes out of steam in the left side of the cylinder through the exhaust outlet.
It does not produce steam engine capacity, but the steam is used to convert the heat energy emerging from fuel combustion to the rotational movement or the movement forward and backward, to perform a specific job. Each steam oven machine to burn the coal, oil, wood or other fuel to produce thermal energy.
In the atomic reactor power plants to replace the furnace, and the heat created from the splitting of atoms. See a nuclear reactor.
Each machine steam boiler (kettle) are inside the water refer to steam. And expands the steam or take a larger volume of water several times larger. You can use this energy expansion in two ways: 1. to push the piston back and forth 2. Management turbine.
Steam engines piston. A piston moving forward and backward in the cylinder. There are many systems of valves allow the entry of steam into the cylinder, push the plunger in a first direction and then in the other direction before the vapor is discharged to the exhaust. Typically self-styled these engines reciprocating engines, because Mkabsaa movement back and forth.
And require steam hammers, which are used to pay land rigs or in metal methods such as this type of locomotive Aharkhbad that require rotational movement for the management of its wheels.
It is obtained this movement connect the pistons to the crankshaft. In some reciprocating steam engines and motor vehicle called the steam flows through the four-cylinder and is running four presses.
Steam turbines. Steam turbine produces rotational movement. To steam turbine several sets of feathered wheels mounted on a long pole. Steam enters the one hand, Feder feathered wheels during a dash them.
And used in the steam turbine generator management and Rvasat ships
The first steam engines It relied on the ability of precipitation to the media not only on its ability to stretch. When the steam condenses into a liquid, the latter takes up less space than it needs steam.
Had this condensation process has taken place in a flask court or vase it produces partially discharged or suction process, both of which produce useful occupied the post.
In 1698 AD invented the English Thomas Travel light (1650-1715 AD) was the first practical steam engine, and has had a pump to pull water out of the mines. Travel light pump did not contain moving parts, but valves by hand. When they managed valves allow the steam to enter the pot arbitrator.
She was pouring cold water on the walls of the pot to cool down; and then condenses steam. Then open the valve until the water suction tube top by vacuum into the vessel.
In 1712 the British invented the mourning Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729 AD) steam engine. The Newcomen engine horizontal large pillar in the center, such as a balanced swing. And attached to the piston inside the cylinder from one end of the stent. When allowed to steam poured into the cylinder, the steam was pushing the plunger to the top of lowering the other end of the pillar. Then sprinkle spray cold water inside the steam roller and pulls Wejtktv discharge piston down again, bringing up the other end of the stud, which has linked piston pump inside the well.
Watt motor. When he started the Scottish engineer James Watt (1736 – 1819) experiments in 1763 was the Newcomen engine Bukhari bestselling proliferation.
That was the catalyst for James Watt to think because it was consumed huge amounts of steam, and other large amounts of fuel. Watt saw that the heating and cooling undecided Odaa excessive heat. Then Watt invented the steam engine condenser and separate cylinder, thus roller remains hot all the time.
This system provides three-quarters of the cost of fuel, so the loss of a small amount of steam entering intensify during the cold roller.
Watt scored the first patent for the invention of the steam engine in 1769, and then continued to make improvements to his machine. Perhaps one of the best improvements introduced by the use of the principle of the double act. In engines that are built on this principle, the first steam is used on one side of the piston and then on the other side. And also learn watts to close by the steam roller when filled in part, it led to the expansion of the existing steam already in the cylinder to supplement the piston task.
It is believed many people mistake that Watt invented the steam engine, but it has only improvements on previous designs created by Newcomen and reduce the cost of the use of intensive steam engines, and thus made possible the use of these engines in the work other than pumping.
Modern steam engines. The most significant improvements in the years that followed Newcomen and Watt develop engines capable of a high pressure steam use. Until that time, not tested watt engine at high pressure for fear of explosion. It did not exceed the pressure in its engines for the atmospheric pressure or the equivalent of 100 kPa.
About the world of James Watt:
James Watt (1736 -1819 m)
It gave the world one of the
The greatest machines in history
(Steam engine, condenser) that sparked the Industrial Revolution
Watt was not first invented the machine
Scooters, have preceded many attempts by him, but those earlier machines were weak effort degree that they were only in the water from the mines to pump use, and participates Watt with the English engineer Barlton and the work of the two in the establishment of a factory for the manufacture of inventions Watt and other discoveries watery scale marine turbine and governing acquisitum centrifugum to regulate engine speed.
Enter fundamental improvements in 1765 m on the Newcomen steam machine which led to the widespread use of steam power in many factories.
In honor of his achievements was his name on the unit of electrical power (watts)
And ampersands = unit for measuring the mechanical strength or electrical watts per equivalent to a transfer of power in one Gul for 1 second and (kW) = 1.34 horsepower.
He died in 1819.
In the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century, the British Richard Trevithick designed and built the first steam engine high pressure. And designed one of those engines that operate under the pressure of 200 kPa. By the year 1815, making the American Oliver Evans engine used steam pressure equivalent to 1,400 kPa of steam. There are nowadays engines used steam at a pressure of more than the equivalent of 7,000 kPa.
It included other improvements that have entered the steam engines innovation and the use of the boat engine and use the steam super heating. In this case the steam temperature rises to more than 370 ° m without an increase in pressure. This process will help to protect the steam coming from the condensation on the surfaces of the piston cylinder.
It was the invention of the steam turbine in the late nineteenth century, a major milestone in the development of steam engines. And provided a steam turbine to generate an economic source of power required for the management of electrical generators and management Rvasat steamboats.
Newly steam power used in power plants
Steam power plants
Steam power plants are considered transforming energy (Energy Converter)
These stations use different types of fuel available by species such as coal or liquid petroleum or natural gas, or industrial.
Characterized stations steam as big as the size and cost of licenses for the huge potential is also characterized by the possibility of their use for desalination of saline water, which makes it a bi-especially in a country where fresh water sources less production.
Choose steam stations sites Site Selection of Steam Power Station
Control the selection of appropriate sites for thermal generating stations of several influential factors, among them
the following :
1. proximity to fuel sources and easily transferred to these sites and provide the economic means of transportation.
2. proximity to cooling water sources because the condenser needs to be large amounts of cooling water. Therefore, these stations are usually built on the shores of the sea or near rivers.
3. proximity to electric power consumption centers to provide construction costs of transportation lines. Consumption centers are typically urban and residential areas, commercial and industrial complexes
Dependent power stations steam on the use of type of fuel available and burned in private to convert the chemical energy of fuel into heat energy in the flame resulting from the combustion process, and the use of thermal energy to heat water in private (BOILERS boilers, furnaces) and converted to steam at a temperature and a certain pressure and then shed this steam to turbines or steam turbines are designed for this purpose who shall rapid steam rotate the turbine hub and thus the thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy on the axis of the turbine. It connects the axis of the electric generator directly linked with the axis of the steam turbine electrical generator Fedor axis (AL TERNATOR) at the same speed rotary magnetic private and exploiting (ROTOR) of the generator and the stator (STATOR) it is generated on both ends of the stator of the generator electrical power needed.
The drawing shows the analog No. series converting energy from the first burning fuel until the electric power industry.
There are no fundamental differences between the steam-generation plants that use different fuels, but in terms of roads and storage and handling and burning fuel transfer.
It was the use of coal common in the late last century and early this century, but the discovery and extraction of oil and its products the latest radical change in thermal power plants, where he became used by ninety percent for ease of transportation and storage and heartburn if it were liquid fuel or gas.
Steam power plants components:
Steam generating stations generally consist of the following main parts:
A) furnace: Furnace
It is a big pot of burning fuel. The different shape and type of the vessel according to the type of fuel the user and appends a means of storing, transporting and trading of fuel and throw solid wast.
B) boiler: Boiler
It is a large container of pure water is heated by burning fuel to turn this water
To vapor. In many cases, a furnace and boiler in an investigation into one of communication
Direct between the burning fuel and water to be heated d.
The different types of boilers depending on plant size and the amount of steam product per unit time.
C) thermal turbine or the turbine Turbine
It is a turbine of steel her axis and conducts its body on the cylindrical Sticky by the form of plates concave where collides with the steam worked to spin and rotating axis very high speed of about 3000 rpm and vary turbines in size, design and shape depending on the steam velocity and pressure and temperature, that is, depending on size the power plant.
D) the electrical generator: Generator
It is an electrician author of biting directly connected with the axis of the turbine rotor and fixed by .oalv members insulated copper wire for the movement of the rotor magnetic field and turn it into an electric current on the outskirts of hard Lists generator. It varies depending on the form of this generator plant size .
E) condenser: Condenser
It is a large bowl of steel enters him from top following steam from the turbine after it has carried rotate and lost a lot of pressure and temperature, as included in this condensed from the bottom of a stream of cooling water within the helical tube is transforming the weak steam into water where this water back to the boiler again by special pumps.
F) the chimney: Chimney
It is a thermal chimney brick (Brick) cylindrical very high working to expel the waste gas to the combustion air at high altitude to accelerate the expulsion of combustion gases and reduce the pollution of the environment surrounding the plant.
G) machinery and auxiliary equipment: Auxiliaries
It is a large number of pumps, mechanical and electrical motors and organizations speed and steam equipment that helps to complete the work in the power plants roasting.